Developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995, Java is regarded as a high-level programming language because it is the farthest away from the hardware.
It is a versatile language that can run on various operating systems such as UNIX, Mac OS, and Windows.
Basics of Java are a must-know for working professionals and computer science students because it is an object-oriented language. Contrary to other programming languages, Java is compiled into a byte code that is platform independent.
Furthermore, Java is safe and secure and is easy to learn for first-time programmers.
This article reference will help you understand the Basics of Java and their practical applications while learning the programming language.
Basic Java Syntax
Syntax can be defined as the statement structure in a particular programming language. While coding in Java, you need to learn the following basic syntax to write a clean code:
- Class Name: For every class name, ensure that the first letter is written in an uppercase. If you have created a class name with multiple words, then ensure that each inner word starts with a capital letter. For example, a class name in a program can be – MyFirstTrip.
- out.printIn(): This syntax is utilized as a print statement in Java. System is known as the class, out is regarded as the object, and printIn() is the class method.
- Case Sensitivity: Always remember that Java is a case-sensitive programming language. Therefore, lowercase and uppercase letters are treated differently.
- Method Name: Ensure that every method in your Java program begins with a lowercase letter. If multiple words are included in the name of a method, then every word must begin with a capital letter.
A variable in Java is used to contain a set of data values. Thus, variables are associated with different data types. The most common types of variables seen in Java are:
- Local Variable: Local variables are the ones that are declared inside the method body.
- Instance Variable: Instance variables are the ones that are declared outside the method body but inside the class.
- Static Variables: Static variables are the ones that have been declared as static. They are not local. Also, programmers cannot create copies of them and share them among any class.
Next in our list of basics of Java Is data types. In layman terms, data types explain to the compiler how a programmer wants to use the given data. Therefore, it defines a set of values and the operations that can be performed on them. There are following data types in Java:
- Primitive Data Type: Primitive data types are regarded as the data manipulation building blocks. Like the name suggests, they’re the most basic data types that only define the type and size of variables in Java. They have further 8 data types, namely – Boolean, byte, char, short, int, long, float, and double.
- Non-Primitive Data Type: Non-primitive data types are not defined and can store multiple values. For example: class, object, string, array, and interface.
Java has a set of operators wherein each operator represents an action. There are following types of operators in Java:
- Arithmetic operators: These operators, like the name suggests, can be used to implement arithmetic operations such as subtraction, addition, division, and multiplication.
- Assignment operators: These operators are given the task to assign a set of values to variables.
- Logical operators: These operators are based on Boolean expressions. They are utilized in loops and conditional statements to evaluate the conditions.
- Relational operators: These operators inspect the relationship between any two operands.
- Bitwise operators: These operators are given the task to perform the bit-by-bit operation.
- Unary operators: These operators can perform a set of operations only on one operand.
- Ternary operators: These can perform operations on a set of three operands and are used to inspect Boolean expressions.
Arrays are a popular data structure in Java and they contain a collection of similar types of data elements that have a sequential memory location. There are two types of arrays in Java:
- Single-dimensional arrays: These are a list of array variables that can be accessed by the programmer using a common name.
- Multi-dimensional arrays: Data elements are stored in their matrix form in multi-dimensional arrays.
When writing a Java program, you will sometimes need to implement a code multiple times to get the results that you desire. In such a situation, there are loop statements that allow programmers to execute a number of statements multiple times. This allows programmers to build efficient software. Java has three types of loop statements:
- While Loop: Like the name suggests, this loop statement repeats a statement only while the given condition holds true.
- For Loop: This loop statement implements a statement sequenced multiple times to help the programmer manage local variables efficiently.
- Do While Loop: This loop statement tests a given condition at the end of a loop body but works just like the do while loop.
Conditional statements are utilized to implement certain statements based on certain given conditions. Some of the conditional statements used in Java are:
- If Statements: This statement will execute the code section only of the test is proven to be true.
- Nested If Statements: These statements have an if statement inside another if statement.
- If Else Statements: As per this conditional statement, if the given condition is proven to be true, then the code section that comes under ‘if’ would be executed. Otherwise, the code section that comes under ‘else’ would be executed.
To master the basics of Java enlisted above, you can take help from various coding boot camps and other self-educated online and offline programming courses.
And remember, when it comes to becoming a software development expert, there are no shortcuts! Therefore, always create a strong coding foundation by learning the basics!